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In bonobos, moms help their sons acquire mating and reproductive success. They intervene in male competition by grooming attractive females and deterring other males from mating with them. Males do not use aggression against females to coerce them into mating, which is a trait that separates bonobos from the closely related chimpanzees where males use aggression to achieve mating. Transcript: "Yeah. I think one funny aspect about the May competition in bonobos is that the moms are very helpful to their sons in terms of acquiring mating and also reproductive success. So sometimes-- the term is [INAUDIBLE] moms or something like that. It really seems that high-ranking females, if they have adult sons, these sons are particularly successful. And females, they sometimes intervene in male competition. They hang around these attractive females as well. They groom them and they try to deter other males from mating with them. So that's an interesting aspect. The other thing which is also interesting is that males do not use aggression against those females to coerce them into mating or to force them into mating. So that is something which really is not unique in bonobos, but is a trait which separates bonobos very clearly from the very closely related chimpanzees where males use aggression to achieve mating-- use aggression against females to basically mate with females."
A dynamic warm-up helps to prepare my body and mind for a workout, and I notice a difference if I don't do one. Transcript: "Yeah, there are differences in my workout related to a dynamic warm-up. Just the dynamic warm-up helps to prepare my body and helps get my mind into focusing on the training itself. I can't just jump into a workout session without getting my body warmed up. My body just won't cooperate. It needs to be warmed up at this point in time. Have I noticed a difference? I notice it probably more if I don't do some type of a dynamic warm-up. But, honestly, it's been such a long time since I've tried to do something without warming up a little bit ahead of time. As far as noticing a difference doing a dynamic warm-up or not doing a dynamic warm-up, I can say there would be a difference. But how much of a difference, it really would be difficult for me to say because I don't pass on a dynamic warm-up before I do any other type of training. I have to do it to have a decent training session."
I typically do a 5 minute dynamic warm-up with exercise bike and assault bike, followed by some arm and leg swings when I'm doing resistance training. Otherwise, I'll just warm up gradually with lower intensity cardio. Transcript: "I do not adjust the length of my dynamic warm-up. Typically I'm only going to do a dynamic warm-up when I'm going to do some type of resistance training. Then I'll go through my standard dynamic warm-up which is five minutes on exercise bike and assault bike followed by about five minutes with some arm swings, leg swings type exercises. The only time I might not do a dynamic warm-up is if I'm going to be doing some like cardio something along those lines and I'll still warm up but I just I'll start my cardio at a lower intensity and then gradually work up the intensity as my body warms up and gets ready for more physical more intense physical activity."
Make sure you wear clothes that are comfortable, allow your body to move freely, and keep your body cool in warm environments. Transcript: "As far as attire, getting you ready to train, you want something that you're, one, you're comfortable. You're comfortable wearing. If you're going to be training somewhere where there will be other people, again, are you comfortable with whatever you're wearing for other people to see you. It's also important that whatever you wear, that it is, allows you to move freely. It's not binding, it's not restrictive. Typically regular clothing with buttons and snaps and zippers and belts and that kind of stuff is not conducive to allow your body to move freely and train. If you're going to be working out in a warm environment, you want clothing that will allow your body to breathe, to perspire and evaporate and keep the body cool. So the environment makes a difference, but you've got to train with what you're most comfortable wearing."
The future of drug delivery is looking very promising and will involve targeting specific cells, going through different barriers for different diseases, and being able to send signals in the body and respond with drugs. Transcript: "Well, I think the future of drug delivery is going to go in many different directions. I mean, one is being able to target drugs to specific cells in the body, like cancer cells. Another is being able to go through different barriers for different diseases. A good example would be being able to go through the blood-brain barrier, which might help in treating diseases like Alzheimer's someday and things like that. And then someday, maybe making really smart drug delivery systems that could send signals in the body and then deliver drugs in response to them."
Clean energy startups are growing in popularity due to the awareness of climate change and energy security concerns. Transcript: "Yeah, a great question. It is a very big leap. This is including both fission and fusion energy startups. I mean, I think the reason for this is that the reality of climate change and how difficult decarbonization will be-- and this includes all decarbonization, not just of the electrical grid-- is dawning on people. There's a variety-- a large swath of industries now promising that they're going to decarbonize, but they actually don't have the technologies with which to do it or scale for their particular application. And more recently, of course, the whole aspect of energy security, when this happened, and the questions surrounding it because of the invasion of Ukraine and the dependencies of different places geopolitically, our energy sources has really brought this to bear. So it's a really unique time, I think, in clean energy startups because of that."